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Title: 退職移行期にある看護者の健康と社会活動に関する実証研究 : 退職看護者の人材活用システムの課題
Other Titles: Evidential study about the relation between the health and the social activities of people considering retirement : Issues surrounding human resources for retiring nurses
Authors: 堀井, とよみ
筒井, 裕子
藤井, 淑子
太田, 久佐子
柴崎, さと子
西島, 治子
平, 英美
西田, 厚子
Keywords: 退職移行期
retirement transition stage
productive aging
social activity
Issue Date: 31-Mar-2006
Publisher: 滋賀県立大学人間看護学部
Abstract: 背景 人口の高齢化の進展は日本の看護政策にも大きな影響を与えつつある。とりわけ、団塊の世代が高齢期に入る今後は、退職看護者の職業経験を生かした社会活動の制度を構築することが急務である。しかしながら、これまで、看護労働において主として注目されてきたのは、新人におけるバーンアウトの問題や、日本の女性労働に特徴的なM字型就労にともなう中途退職の問題であった。再就労対策においてもこれらの人びとに焦点をあて、ナースセンターが中心的役割を果たしてきた。しかし、団塊の世代の看護者が大量に退職すると予測される中で、より有効な人材活用を考えていくためには、退職移行期にある看護者の健康と再就職を含めた社会貢献活動への参加意向を明らかにする必要がある。目的 退職移行期にある看護者について、職位、配偶者の有無などの基本的属性や健康状態、社会参加状況を統計学的に明らかにする。方法 滋賀県内の中高年期の退職経験のある看護者(以下、退職者という)および勤務している看護者(以下、勤務者という)に対してアンケート調査を実施した。退職者240名、勤務者687名を分析対象とした。健康状態、社会活動参加状況、老化意識尺度、退職準備度、退職後の就労意向および生活変化に関する無記名自記式アンケートを行った。結果 1)退職者と勤務者の両者を比較したところ、健康状態(健康自己評価、PGCモラール尺度、愁訴数)および老化意識尺度において統計的に有意な差が認められ、退職者は勤務者より良好な状態であった。特に、勤務者のPGC点数は低値であり、老化意識と有意に関連している。 2)老化意識は健康に関する4変数(健康自己評価、PGCモラール尺度、愁訴数)に有意に関連している。 3)退職者は勤務者に比べてアクティブな日常生活を送っているが、勤務者の退職後の生活に対する生活イメージはネガティブである。 4)退職者の社会参加度は、退職準備度、親しい友人数、PGCモラール尺度、老化意識尺度と相関しており、退職後、社会活動に参加するためには退職準備が重要である。 5)退職者、勤務者の双方ともに高い再就労意欲を示しているが、退職者は公的な人材活用システムを活用せず、個人的なネットワークで再就職していた。結論 退職看護者の労働力は潜在的な労働力として期待できるにもかかわらず、現行の人材活用システムは十分に活用されていない。今後、行政と看護職能団体が協力して、より地域社会に密着したシステムを構築する必要がある。
Background The progressive aging of Japan's population has a large influence on the nursing policy here. In particular, the elderly population will continue to grow as the "baby-boomer" generation ages. It is necessary to establish a system that offers various social activities (i.e.: volunteering both locally and globally) which make use of nurses' occupational experiences. To date, problems associated with nursing have involved the burnout of new nurses, and their premature retirement due to issues facing married Japanese women, and women raising children. Nurse centers play an important role in focusing on these particular types of nurses as part of the general rehiring policy. As the "baby-boomer" generation approaches retirement age, a large number of nurses are expected to retire. To promote a more effective use of human resources, it is necessary to understand the mindset of nurses transitioning into retirement. Objective This paper aims to investigate factors that influence health conditions (self-evaluation of health condition) and social activities of nurses in the transitional phase of retirement, including such basic attributes as: job position, presence of a spouse, state of health, family background, and personal lifestyle. Method The survey was conducted on 240 middleaged nurses who had retired in Shiga prefecture (identified as "retirees"), and 687 nurses currently employed (identified as "workers"). They were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire regarding such matters as: present state of health, degree of social participation, their personal consciousness of aging, state of preparedness for retirement, views on working after retirement and changes in lifestyle following retirement. Results 1) After comparing the retiree group and worker group, significant statistical differences were observed in health conditions (through self-evaluation of health conditions, PGC Morale scale, and number of complaints about health) and on their own personal awareness of aging. Retirees were found to be in better physical condition than workers. Noticeably, the PGC level for workers was low, which also had a significant effect on their awareness of the fact that they are getting older. 2) The personal awareness of aging has three variables that are related to health: self estimation for health condition, PGC Morale scale and number of complaints about health. 3) Retirees were found to be leading more active lifestyles than workers, but workers held a negative image of any post-retirement lifestyle. 4) The degree of social participation of retirees was found to be linked to preparedness for retirement, number of close friends, PGC Morale scale, and their awareness of aging. In particular, preparation for retirement was found to be very important for participation in post-retirement social activities. 5) Both retirees and workers showed a high level of desire to go back to work. Retirees, however, preferred to use their own personnel networking skills to obtain work than to use any existing official human resources system. Discussion It is possible to anticipate the potential work force of retired nurses, but the present human resources system is not being fully utilized. It will be necessary for both the government and nursing associations to work together to create a community-based system.
NII JaLC DOI: info:doi/10.24795/nk003_071-084
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